(Singular) A collective term used to describe all soil movements due to Frost Action irrespective of the existence of Permafrost. (Plural) Irregular structures formed in earth materials by deep Frost Penetration and Frost Action processes, and characterized by folded, broken and dislocated beds and lenses of unconsolidated deposits, included organic horizons and even bedrock. Note: Cryoturbation encompasses Frost Heave, thaw settlement and all differential movements, including expansion and contraction due to temperature changes and the growth and disappearance of Ground Ice bodies, whether perennial or seasonal. Low temperatures alone are not enough to produce Cryoturbation; the water-ice phase change is necessary. Cryoturbation is an important process in the development of Patterned Ground.