A sheetlike mass of layered ice formed on the ground surface, or on river or lake ice, by freezing of successive flows of water that may seep from the ground, flow from a spring or emerge from below river or lake ice through fractures. Icings, also known as glaciation, may also occur in non-permafrost areas. In North America the term 'icing' is gradually replacing a variety of terms used in the past. Aufeis (German), flood ice, flood-plain icing, ice field, naled (Russian) and overflow ice usually indicated icings formed on river ice and floodplains. Chrystocrene (or crystocrene), ground icing, groundwater icing and spring icing usually indicated icings formed by freezing of ground-water discharge. Use of the term 'glacier' to describe icings, is inappropriate and should be avoided.